Search and replace a word in a file using Vim editor

There are many times when you want to replace multiple occurrences of a word in a file with another word. In small files you can do it manually. But in large files, you can’t take on that method. Vim editor provides a simple command to do this. Say you want to replace a word ‘begin‘ with the word ‘end‘ from a file ‘test‘.

In the terminal,

vim test

Once you have the file opened, simply type this command

:%s/begin/end/g

This command will replace all the occurrences of ‘begin‘ with ‘end

Vector Addition – OpenCL

In this post, I will show you how to write a vector addition code using OpenCL . The code is listed below:

//Includes
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <iostream>

#ifdef __APPLE__
#include <OpenCL/opencl.h>
#else
#include <CL/cl.h>
#endif

#define DATA_SIZE 10

using namespace std;

const char *ProgramSource =
"__kernel void add(__global float *inputA, __global float *inputB, __global float *output)\n"\
"{\n"\
"  size_t id = get_global_id(0);\n"\
"  output[id] = inputA[id] + inputB[id];\n"\
"}\n";

int main(void)
{
cl_context context;
cl_context_properties properties[3];
cl_kernel kernel;
cl_command_queue command_queue;
cl_program program;
cl_int err;
cl_uint num_of_platforms=0;
cl_platform_id platform_id;
cl_device_id device_id;
cl_uint num_of_devices=0;
cl_mem inputA, inputB, output;

size_t global;

float inputDataA[DATA_SIZE]={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10};
float inputDataB[DATA_SIZE]={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10};
float results[DATA_SIZE]={0};

int i;

// retreive a list of platforms avaible
if (clGetPlatformIDs(1, &platform_id, &num_of_platforms)!= CL_SUCCESS)
{
printf("Unable to get platform_id\n");
return 1;
}

// try to get a supported GPU device
if (clGetDeviceIDs(platform_id, CL_DEVICE_TYPE_GPU, 1, &device_id, &num_of_devices) != CL_SUCCESS)
{
printf("Unable to get device_id\n");
return 1;
}

// context properties list - must be terminated with 0
properties[0]= CL_CONTEXT_PLATFORM;
properties[1]= (cl_context_properties) platform_id;
properties[2]= 0;

// create a context with the GPU device
context = clCreateContext(properties,1,&device_id,NULL,NULL,&err);

// create command queue using the context and device
command_queue = clCreateCommandQueue(context, device_id, 0, &err);

// create a program from the kernel source code
program = clCreateProgramWithSource(context,1,(const char **) &ProgramSource, NULL, &err);

// compile the program
if (clBuildProgram(program, 0, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL) != CL_SUCCESS)
{
printf("Error building program\n");
return 1;
}

// specify which kernel from the program to execute
kernel = clCreateKernel(program, "add", &err);

// create buffers for the input and ouput

inputA = clCreateBuffer(context, CL_MEM_READ_ONLY, sizeof(float) * DATA_SIZE, NULL, NULL);
inputB = clCreateBuffer(context, CL_MEM_READ_ONLY, sizeof(float) * DATA_SIZE, NULL, NULL);
output = clCreateBuffer(context, CL_MEM_WRITE_ONLY, sizeof(float) * DATA_SIZE, NULL, NULL);

// load data into the input buffer
clEnqueueWriteBuffer(command_queue, inputA, CL_TRUE, 0, sizeof(float) * DATA_SIZE, inputDataA, 0, NULL, NULL);
clEnqueueWriteBuffer(command_queue, inputB, CL_TRUE, 0, sizeof(float) * DATA_SIZE, inputDataB, 0, NULL, NULL);

// set the argument list for the kernel command
clSetKernelArg(kernel, 0, sizeof(cl_mem), &inputA);
clSetKernelArg(kernel, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &inputB);
clSetKernelArg(kernel, 2, sizeof(cl_mem), &output);

global=DATA_SIZE;

// enqueue the kernel command for execution
clEnqueueNDRangeKernel(command_queue, kernel, 1, NULL, &global, NULL, 0, NULL, NULL);
clFinish(command_queue);

// copy the results from out of the output buffer
clEnqueueReadBuffer(command_queue, output, CL_TRUE, 0, sizeof(float) *DATA_SIZE, results, 0, NULL, NULL);

// print the results
printf("output: ");

for(i=0;i<DATA_SIZE; i++)
{
printf("%f ",results[i]);
}

// cleanup - release OpenCL resources
clReleaseMemObject(inputA);
clReleaseMemObject(inputB);
clReleaseMemObject(output);
clReleaseProgram(program);
clReleaseKernel(kernel);
clReleaseCommandQueue(command_queue);
clReleaseContext(context);

return 0;

}

To compile the code on a Mac, open terminal and type

g++ -o add add.c -framework OpenCL

The output is :

output: 2.000000
4.000000
6.000000
8.000000
10.000000
12.000000
14.000000
16.000000
18.000000
20.000000

Take a look at line number 53, CL_DEVICE_TYPE_GPU is used to select a GPU device. Other alternatives for this flag include CL_DEVICE_TYPE_CPUCL_DEVICE_TYPE_ACCELERATORCL_DEVICE_TYPE_ALL etc . Refer to OpenCL documentation for more details (see here).

OpenCL code structure

OpenCL is the first open, royalty-free standard for cross-platform, parallel programming of modern processors found in personal computers, servers and handheld/embedded devices. OpenCL (Open Computing Language) greatly improves speed and responsiveness for a wide spectrum of applications in numerous market categories from gaming and entertainment to scientific and medical software.

The Khronos consortium that manages the OpenCL standard has developed an applications programming interface (API) that is general enough to run on significantly different architectures while being adaptable enough that each hardware platform can still obtain high performance. The OpenCL API is a C with a C++ Wrapper API that is defined in terms of the C API. There are third-party bindings for many languages, including Java, Python, and .NET. The code that executes on an OpenCL device, which in general is not the same device as the host CPU, is written in the OpenCL C language. OpenCL C is a restricted version of the C99 language with extensions appropriate for executing data-parallel code on a variety of heterogeneous devices.

Let’s get started with OpenCL program structure. In the process, I will also indicate the analogy between CUDA and OpenCL commands later. In this way, it will be easy to learn CUDA and OpenCL side by side. In general, writing a code in OpenCL can be generalized in the following steps:

  1. Discover and initialize the platforms
  2. Discover and initialize the devices
  3. Create a context
  4. Create a command queue
  5. Create device buffers
  6. Write host data to device buffers
  7. Create and compile the program
  8. Create the kernel
  9. Set the kernel arguments
  10. Configure the work-item structure
  11. Enqueue the kernel for execution
  12. Read the output buffer back to the host
  13. Release OpenCL resources

Discover and initialize the platforms

In the OpenCL platform model, there is a single host that coordinates execution on one or more devices. The API function clGetPlatformIDs( ) is used to discover the set of available platforms for a given system.

Discover and initialize the devices

clGetDeviceIDs( ) is used to discover the devices. clGetDeviceInfo( ) is called to retrieve information such as name, type, and vendor from each device.

Create a context

A context is an abstract container that exists on the host. A context coordinates the mechanisms for host–device interaction, manages the memory objects that are available to the devices, and keeps track of the programs and kernels that are created for each device. The API function to create a context is clCreateContext( ).

Create a command queue

Communication with a device occurs by submitting commands to a command queue. The command queue is the mechanism that the host uses to request action by the device. The API clCreateCommandQueue( ) is used to create a command queue and associate it with a device.

Create device buffers

In order for data to be transferred to a device, it must first be encapsulated as a memory object. The API function clCreateBuffer( ) allocates the buffer and returns a memory object.

Write host data to device buffers

Data contained in host memory is transferred to and from an OpenCL buffer using the commands clEnqueueWriteBuffer( ) and clEnqueueReadBuffer( ), respectively.

Create and compile the program

OpenCL C code is called a program. A program is a collection of functions called kernels, where kernels are units of execution that can be scheduled to run on a device.

The process of creating a kernel is as follows:

  • The OpenCL C source code is stored in a character string. If the source code is stored in a file on a disk, it must be read into memory and stored as a character array.
  • The source code is turned into a program object,cl_program,by calling clCreate ProgramWithSource( ).
  • The program object is then compiled, for one or more OpenCL devices, with clBuildProgram( ).

Create the kernel

Now we have to obtain a cl_kernel object that can be used to execute kernels on a device is to extract the kernel from the cl_program. Extracting a kernel from a program is similar to obtaining an exported function from a dynamic library. The name of the kernel that the program exports is used to request it from the compiled program object. The name of the kernel is passed to clCreateKernel( ), along with the program object, and the kernel object will be returned if the program object was valid and the particular kernel is found.

Set the kernel arguments

Each kernel argument individually using the function clSetKernelArg( ). 

Configure the work-item structure

Define an index space (global work size) of work items for execution.

Enqueue the kernel for execution

Requesting that a device begin executing a kernel is done with a call to clEnqueueNDRangeKernel( ).

Read the output buffer back to the host

Use clEnqueueReadBuffer( ) to read the OpenCL output

Release OpenCL resources

This is done using appropriate clRelease commands.

In the next post, I will show an OpenCL equivalent of CUDA vector addition code from the previous post and then the command analogy between CUDA and OpenCL.

References:

  1. http://www.khronos.org/opencl/
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenCL
  3. Book – Heterogeneous Computing With OpenCL: http://www.amazon.com/Heterogeneous-Computing-OpenCL-Benedict-Gaster/dp/0123877660